This is a respiratory disease due to widespread narrowing of the respiratory tract usually as a result of plugging of the bronchial lumen with thick viscid mucous. The disease is reversible spontaneously or by treatment
TYPES OF ASTHMA
There are two types of asthma but both present in the same way
1. Extrinsic asthma:
(a) The attack starts early in life (on or before the third year of life).
(b) There is usually a positive family history of asthma
(c) There is usually a history of allergy to something.
(d) This variety of asthma respond well to bronchodilators such as aminophylline, Ventolin and others.
2. Intrinsic asthma:
(a) The attack starts late in life and tends to be chronic.
(b) There is usually no positive family history of asthma
(c) There may or may not be history of allergy to something.
(d) It responds well to steroids.
CAUSES OF ASTHMA
The actual cause of asthma is not really known but there are some factors involved and include:
Asthma tends to be familia.
some patients are allergic to house dust mites, pollen, features,egg, perfumes, aspirin,fumes or smoke from bleached red oil and others
3. Infection such as chest infections precipitate or aggravate asthma
4. Extremes of temperature especially harmattan
5. Unaccustomed exercise
7. Pregnancy tend to aggravate it
SIGNS OF ASTHMA
1. Episodic dyspnoea
2. Recurrent cough usually at night
3. Chest pain made worse by coughing and deep breath
4. Sweating in severe cases
This usually yields no positive result but some investigations done include:
1. Skin test for allergy
2. Full blood count and ESR
3. Sputum for microscopy, culture and sensitivity
MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA
The most important factor in the management of asthma is to identify what triggers off the attack and then avoid such .
Drugs used to prevent attack include sodiumcromoglycate and others
Drug used for treatment include:
1. Aminophylline= tablet and injections
5. Steroids such as hydrocortisone ; prednisolone, kenalog and other
4. Cough syrup
Complications of asthma
1. Respiratory failure
3. Cor pulmonale
Drugs contraindicated in asthma
1. B- Block such as inderal ( propranolol)
TPS FOR ASTHMA PREVENTION
1.Identify Asthma Triggers.
2.Smoke of Any Type.
4.Allergy-Proof Your Stay Away From allergens, avoid them.
5.Get Your Vaccinations.
6.Consider Immunotherapy Allergy Shots.
7.Take Asthma Medications as Prescribed