Causes, treatment, symptoms of ovarian cyst

DEFINITION

Ovarian cysts

 are Fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. Women have two ovaries — each about the size and shape of an almond — located on each side of the uterus. Eggs (ova) develop and mature in the ovaries and are released in monthly cycles during your childbearing years.

Many women have Ovarian cysts at some time during their lives. Most Ovarian cysts present little or no discomfort and are harmless. The majority of Ovarian cysts disappear without treatment within a few months.

However, Ovarian cysts — especially those that have ruptured — sometimes produce serious symptoms. The best ways to protect your health are to know the symptoms that may signal a more significant problem and to schedule regular pelvic examinations.

SYMPTOMS

Most cysts don’t cause any symptoms and go away on their own. A large ovarian cyst can cause abdominal discomfort. If a large cyst presses on your bladder, you may feel the need to urinate more frequently because bladder capacity is reduced.

The signs and symptoms of Ovarian cysts, if present, may include:

  • Pelvic pain — a dull ache that may radiate to your lower back and thighs
  • Pelvic pain shortly before your period begins or just before it ends
  • Pelvic pain during intercourse (dyspareunia)
  • Pain during bowel movements or pressure on your bowels
  • Nausea, vomiting or breast tenderness like that experienced during pregnancy
  • Fullness or heaviness in your abdomen
  • Pressure on your bladder that causes you to urinate more frequently or have difficulty emptying your bladder completely
  • CAUSES

    Most Ovarian cysts develop as a result of the normal function of your menstrual cycle. These are known as functional cysts. Other types of cysts are much less common.

    Functional cysts.

    Your ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Follicles produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone and release an egg when you ovulate. Sometimes a normal monthly follicle keeps growing. When that happens, it is known as a functional cyst. There are two types of functional cysts:

  • Follicular cyst. 

    Around the midpoint of your menstrual cycle, an egg bursts out of its follicle and travels down the fallopian tube in search of sperm and fertilization. A follicular cyst begins when something goes wrong and the follicle doesn’t rupture or release its egg. Instead it grows and turns into a cyst.

  • Corpus luteum cyst.

     When a follicle releases its egg, the ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone for conception. This follicle is now called the corpus luteum. Sometimes, however, the escape opening of the egg seals off and Fluid accumulates inside the follicle, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst.

  • The fertility drug clomiphene (Clomid, Serophene), which is used to induce ovulation, increases the risk of a corpus luteum cyst developing after ovulation. These cysts don’t prevent or threaten a resulting pregnancy.

    Functional cysts are usually harmless, rarely cause pain, and often disappear on their own within two or three menstrual cycles.

    Other cysts

    Some types of cysts are not related to the normal function of your menstrual cycle. These cysts include:

  • Dermoid cysts.

     These cysts may contain tissue, such as hair, skin or teeth, because they form from cells that produce human eggs. They are rarely Cancerous.

  • Cystadenomas. 

    These cysts develop from ovarian tissue and may be filled with a watery liquid or a mucous material.

  • Endometriomas. 

    These cysts develop as a result of Endometriosis, a condition in which uterine endometrial cells grow outside your uterus. Some of that tissue may attach to your ovary and form a growth.

  • Dermoid cysts and cystadenomas can become large, causing the ovary to move out of its usual position in the pelvis. This increases the chance of painful twisting of your ovary, called ovarian torsion.

    COMPLICATIONS

    Some women develop less common types of cysts that may not produce symptoms, but that a doctor may find during a pelvic exam. Cystic ovarian masses that develop after Menopause may be Cancerous (malignant). That’s why it’s important to have regular pelvic exams.

    Infrequent complications associated with Ovarian cysts include:

  • Ovarian torsion.

     Cysts that become large may cause the ovary to move out of its usual position in the pelvis. This increases the chance of painful twisting of your ovary, called ovarian torsion.

  • Rupture. 

    A cyst that ruptures may cause severe pain and lead to internal bleeding.

  • TREATMENTS AND DRUGS

    Treatment depends on your age, the type and size of your cyst, and your symptoms. Your doctor may suggest:

  • Watchful waiting. 

    In many cases you can wait and be re-examined to see if the cyst goes away on its own within a few months. This is typically an option — regardless of your age — if you have no symptoms and an ultrasound shows you have a small, Fluid-filled cyst. Your doctor will likely recommend that you get follow-up pelvic ultrasounds at periodic intervals to see if your cyst has changed in size.

  • Birth control pills. 

    Your doctor may recommend birth control pills to reduce the chance of new cysts developing in future menstrual cycles. Oral contraceptives offer the added benefit of significantly reducing your risk of Ovarian cancer — the risk decreases the longer you take birth control pills.

  • Surgery. 

    Your doctor may suggest removal of a cyst if it is large, doesn’t look like a functional cyst, is growing, or persists through two or three menstrual cycles. Cysts that cause pain or other symptoms may be removed.

  • Some cysts can be removed without removing the ovary in a procedure known as an ovarian cystectomy. In some circumstances, your doctor may suggest removing the affected ovary and leaving the other intact in a procedure known as oophorectomy.

    If a cystic mass is Cancerous, however, your doctor will likely advise a total hysterectomy plus removing both ovaries and the fallopian tubes, as well as your uterus. Your doctor is also likely to recommend surgery when a cystic mass develops on the ovaries after Menopause.

    LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES

    Although there’s no definite way to prevent the growth of Ovarian cysts, regular pelvic examinations are a way to help ensure that changes in your ovaries are diagnosed as early as possible. In addition, be alert to changes in your monthly cycle, including symptoms that may accompany menstruation that aren’t typical for you or that persist over more than a few cycles. Talk with your doctor about any changes that concern you.

    About Nursefaith 44 Articles
    Hello____ my name is faith,and a nurse by profession loves taking care of people especially your health. I am here whenever you need me,for everyday care or life-changing care,you can count on me to keep you and your loved ones safe and healthy.

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