Definition, causes and classifications of haemorrhage

HAEMORRHAGE (bleeding)
can be referred to as an Haemorrhage of blood from the blood vessels which can either be external or internal in nature

These are some of the conditions that can lead to bleeding or haemorrhage

1. When there is direct injury to the blood vessels wall e.g wound sustain in accident or during surgical intervation in operation.
2. When the blood vessels wall is diseased as a result of infection. Blood diseases such as (haemophilia) in which there is delay in clotting time.


1. The situation of the bleeding: this can be external or internal.

(a) External haemorrhage: Is the escape of visible blood on the body surface
(b) Internal haemorrhage: in this case, the blood is not seen outside but it is open into the blood cavity, tissue or nearby organs.


Haemorrhage according to the source:

this shows the type of blood vessels involved such as:
(a) Arterial bleeding: the artery is cut and there is an escape of bright red colour blood as a result of the presence of oxygen ( oxygenated blood ).
(b) venous bleeding: in this case the vein is involved or cut. Escape blood is dark red in colour due to diminished/ reduced amount of oxygen in the blood ( deoxygenated blood ). In this case, the blood will not rush under great pressure and it will flow steadily
(c) Capillary bleeding: this is superficial wounds ( the cutting is not deep ) e.g bruises and scratches.
3. Haemorrhage according to time: this is classified into;
(a) primary haemorrhage: the bleeding occurs immediately the blood vessels wall is injured.
(b) Re_actionary or recurrent haemorrhage: this means bleeding occuring after about 24 hrs of the injury or operation or infection.
(c) secondary haemorrhage: this is the type of haemorrhage which really occurs between seven to ten days of injury or operation or infection

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