Treatment, causes, and symptoms of orchitis


Orchitis (or-KIE-tis)

is an inflammation of one or both testicles. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection or by the Mumps virus.

Bacterial Orchitis can be caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly Gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Bacterial Orchitis often results from Epididymitis, an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. In that case, it’s called epididymo-Orchitis.

Orchitis causes pain and can affect fertility. Medication can treat the causes of bacterial Orchitis and can ease some signs and symptoms of viral Orchitis. But it may take several weeks for scrotal tenderness to disappear.


Orchitis signs and symptoms usually develop suddenly and may include:

  • Swelling in one or both testicles
  • Pain ranging from mild to severe
  • Tenderness in one or both testicles, which may last for weeks
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • The terms “testicle pain” and “groin pain” are sometimes used interchangeably. But groin pain occurs in the fold of skin between the thigh and abdomen — not in the testicle. The causes of groin pain are different from the causes of testicle pain.


    Orchitis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Sometimes a cause of Orchitis can’t be determined (idiopathic Orchitis).

    Bacterial Orchitis

    Most often, bacterial Orchitis is the result of Epididymitis. Epididymitis usually is caused by an infection of the urethra or bladder that spreads to the epididymis.

    Often, the cause of the infection is an STI. Other causes of infection may be related to having been born with abnormalities in your urinary tract or having had a catheter or medical instruments inserted into your penis.

    Viral Orchitis

    Viral Orchitis is usually caused by the Mumps virus. About one-third of males who contract the Mumps after puberty develop Orchitis, usually four to seven days after onset of the Mumps.


    Risk factors for nonsexually transmitted Orchitis include:

  • Not being immunized against Mumps
  • Having recurring Urinary tract infections
  • Having surgery that involves the genitals or urinary tract
  • Being born with an abnormality in the urinary tract
  • Sexual behaviors that can lead to STIs put you at risk of sexually transmitted Orchitis. Those behaviors include having:

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sex with a partner who has an STI
  • Sex without a condom
  • A personal history of an STI

    Complications of Orchitis may include:

  • Testicular atrophy.

     Orchitis may eventually cause the affected testicle to shrink.

  • Scrotal abscess.

     The infected tissue fills with pus.

  • Repeated Epididymitis.

     Orchitis can lead to recurrent episodes of Epididymitis.

  • Infertility. 

    Occasionally, Orchitis may cause Infertility or inadequate testosterone production (hypogonadism). But Infertility and hypogonadism are less likely if Orchitis affects only one testicle.


    Treatment depends on the cause of Orchitis.

    Treating bacterial Orchitis

  • Antibiotics are needed to treat bacterial Orchitis and epididymo-Orchitis. If the cause of the bacterial infection is an STI, your sexual partner also needs treatment.
  • Be sure to take the entire course of antibiotics prescribed by your doctor, even if your symptoms ease sooner, to ensure that the infection is gone.
  • It may take several weeks for the tenderness to disappear. Resting, supporting the scrotum with an athletic strap, applying ice packs and taking pain medication can help relieve discomfort.
  • Treating viral Orchitis

    Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms. Your doctor may recommend:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve, others)
  • Bed rest and elevating your scrotum
  • Cold packs
  • Most people with viral Orchitis start to feel better in three to 10 days, although it may take several weeks for the scrotal tenderness to disappear.

    Treating idiopathic Orchitis

    Your doctor may recommend antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications.


    To prevent Orchitis:

  • Get immunized against Mumps, the most common cause of viral Orchitis
  • Practice safe sex, to help protect against STIs that can cause bacterial Orchitis
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